Copyright J V Ward. 14th August 2003
Notes on Shakespeare’s
HOW TO USE THE NOTES
All Shakespeare’s plays are divided into 5 Acts. Each Act is sub divided into scenes. The Notes take each scene (denotes as A to R) and provides the following information.
1 Glossary. Explanation of difficult or obscure words.
2 Summary. A condensation of the scene showing how the plot is developing.
3 Commentary. A detailed literary commentary on the text.
It is suggested that you start by working one scene at a time (A,B,C etc.) working closely with the text. If you would like a synopsis of the plot, then read A2, B2, C2 etc.. This should familiarise you with the play, after which you should attend to the commentary sections (A3, B3, C3 etc.).
ACT ONE SCENE ONE A1
Cloistress nun E'er ever Element the outside world Eye offending brine tears, salt water Fell wicked Golden shaft Cupid's golden arrow causes love. His leaden one brings hate. Hart stag like animal; popular as object of hunting Liver/heart/brain the liver used to be considered the location of passion, the brain of thought, the heart of love. One self king one and the same master (viz. Orsino himself) O'er over
disease Quick lively Season keep fresh (In Shakespeare's time, foodstuffs were preserved with salt) Soe'r whatsoever Strain fragment of music Surfeiting eating too much 'Tis it is
ACT ONE SCENE ONE A2
Count Orsino is in a gloomy mood as he is sick with love for Olivia. His servant Curio tries to cheer him up and offers to take him hunting, but Orsino still pines for Olivia. Valentine enters with news. He says that Olivia has sworn to remain indoors, out of sight of the world for seven years, in memory of her brother who has recently died. Although Orsino is disappointed he tries to cheer himself up by reflecting that a woman who can love a brother so much, will love him, Orsino, all the more when she does eventually fall for him.
ACT ONE SCENE ONE A3
Note that some editors interchange scene 2 with scene 1. This is because in scene 2 , Orsino is mentioned by the sea captain and given a full introduction and description. It would therefore seem sensible to give these facts to the audience before introducing Orsino on stage. However, this scene makes a better introduction to the play as its imagery gives us a complete introduction to the essentials of the play. In the Folio edition (see appendix B) this scene is placed first.
Note the imagery of hunting made more poignant by the pun on the word "hart". The play is all about lovers 'hunting' the objects of their affection. Orsino pursues Olivia, Olivia pursues Viola, Viola Orsino and Malvolio Olivia. In each case, as love is not returned, the affair takes on the aspect of a hunt.
Also observe the imagery of death in 'sicken and so die', 'dying fall' and 'brother's dead love'. This prepares us for the constant references to death in the play. Olivia's brother is dead, Viola and Sebastian are each thought to be dead and there are also other references throughout the play particularly the death imagery in Act II scene 4 and the song 'Come Away Death'.
Note the imagery of the sea in 'receiveth as the sea'. There are various references within the play to the sea being all consuming. In particular having supposedly swallowed up Viola and Sebastian and in Act II scene 4, where Orsino declares that his love is 'all as hungry as the sea'.
This scene shows Orsino in his changeable moods. He is depressed at the beginning of the scene (note the imagery of 'sicken and so die') and elated at the end (love thoughts lie rich). This behaviour is typical of his mood swings later in the play. In particular refer to Act II scene 4 where Feste describes his mind as 'a very opal', suggests a doublet of changeable taffeta' and declares that men of such constancy 'should take to the sea'.
ACT ONE SCENE TWO B1
Arion A character in Roman mythology who charmed a dolphin with his music and was able to ride on its back. Abjur'd sworn to keep away from And though that…pollution it often happens, that people who are evil look innocent Compass achieve Eunuch a young manservant Elysium where the souls of the dead go: A pagan heaven Hap happen Haply conveniently Hold acquaintance with the waves Illyria country in the Balkans: now called Croatia I prithee I ask you Made mine own occasion mellow waited until my own sorrow had become less painful. Murmur rumour
by chance/ by a piece of luck
Provident in peril
Prattle gossip Shape….wit do not tell anyone about this plan
ACT ONE SCENE TWO B2
Viola and a ship's captain have landed on the shore of Illyria after having been shipwrecked. Viola thinks that her brother has been drowned in the wreck but the captain tries to comfort her by saying that he may have survived. The captain tells viola that the country is ruled by Duke Orsino who is trying to charm Olivia, a lady who has sworn to keep away from men, in mourning for her late brother. Viola resolves to become a servant to Orsino. She asks the captain to get her some men's clothing so that she can disguise herself and become a manservant to Orsino. _____________________________________
ACT ONE SCENE TWO B3
This scene serves to introduce the character of Viola and to supply information on the background to the plot. Although the greater part of the scene is given over to recounting background facts, two major themes are evident.
Note that Viola presents the captain with gold. The theme of gifts (gold, jewels, coins etc.) runs through the play. Olivia presents a pearl to Sebastian( IV/3), Orsino sends a jewel to Olivia(II/4), Olivia claims to have received a ring from Viola(I/5), Sebastian receives Antonio's purse (III/3) and Feste continually receives coins from the other characters.
Also observe the theme of disguise and of not appearing as one rally is. Note particularly how Viola states "a beauteous wall doth oft close in pollution". Compare this with Antonio's remarks on Viola (III/4) "Thou hast done good feature shame" i.e. looks good on the outside but is bad inside. Disguise and misrepresentation run through the play. Viola is disguised as a man, Feste disguises himself as Sir Topaz (IV/2), Olivia throws a veil over her face (I/5), Sir Toby misrepresents the fighting abilities of Viola and Sir Andrew, and most importantly, Malvolio appears completely out of character in yellow stockings, cross gartered.
ACT ONE SCENE THREE C1
Allay lessen Viol-de-gamboys musical instrument: something like a modern day cello Fie shame
spendthrift Ducat gold coin Any's any man that is Wooer a man who courts a woman Confine "Confine" has two meanings: "stay within" and "dress up". Maria here means the former. Sir Toby mischievously takes the latter meaning. Plague what a pity it is Care worry O' of Cousin/ niece "cousin" here means relative. "Cousin" can be substituted for niece. Ill hours coming home late Except, before excepted I would rather she took exception to me than I had to take exception to her. They be not if there are not Gust liking By this hand a mild oath. He promises on his 'hand' that it is true. Substractors a malapropism for detractors Coistrel a low person who looks after horses O' th' toe go round and round Parish top a top was a child's toy which span at speed. A parish top was one maintained for the use of villagers. Wench girl Castiliano vulgo an exclamation: the meaning is obscure Shrew a bad tempered woman Accost greet courteously Undo bring you to disaster Board confront Front confront By my troth a mild oath. "upon my word" or similar. Fare you well goodbye Marry mild swear word. Literally the Virgin Mary. Buttery bar literally a bar or ledge where beer tankards are placed. But Maria refers to her breasts. Wherefore what do you mean Metaphor joke
are in need of Canary sweet wine somewhat like modern day sherry. From the Canary Isles. Christian in this context "any other Christian". Eater of beef in Tudor times beef was supposed to dull the brain No question without doubt Forswear give it up Porqoui Why? (French) Bestowed given (i.e. spent some time)
foreign languages Bear-baiting a popular Tudor sport where a bear is chained to a stake and taunted Hadst thou you would have had Mended put right Past question of course Seest can see Flax on a distaff flax on a spinning wheel
an exclamation She'll none of me she won't have anything to do with me Match above her degree marry a man of higher status Estate, years or wit wealth, age or intelligence Tut meaningless exclamation Lif in't where there's life there's hope Masques plays Revels dances Kiskshawses a type of dance Galliard a lively dance Cut a Caper perform a quick dancing step Cut the mutton caper also means a sauce served with mutton--(Sir Toby's little joke) Back trick a backwards dancing step Gifts talents Curtain before 'em covered up Take dust get dusty by being left unused Mistress Mall's picture sadly there is no reliable explanation of who was 'Mistress Mall' Coranto a quick dance Sink-a-pace a five step dance: from the French "cinque paces" Is this a world to hide virtues in? Do not conceal your talents in this cold-blooded world. Stock stocking Taurus Astrological sign of the Bull. Each sign of the Zodiac was supposed to govern a part of the body. Taurus governed the feet.
ACT ONE SCENE THREE C2
Sir Toby Belch is Olivia's uncle and a guest at her house. Maria, Olivia's maid, rebukes him for his drunkenness and his habit of coming home late. Sir Andrew Ague cheek is one of Sir Toby's drunken cronies. Maria plays a trick on him and he is bemused. Sir Toby has brought Sir Andrew to Olivia's house for him to court Olivia but Sir Andrew says that Olivia will have nothing to do with him and he will go home. Sir Toby persuades him to stay a while longer.
ACT ONE SCENE THREE C3
This scene introduces us to the characters of Sir Toby and Sir Andrew. Maria's interaction with Sir Toby tells us all we need to know of their pesonalities and prepares the audience for what follows in later scenes. i.e. Sir Toby keeps "ill hours" (III/3), his continual quaffing and drinking (I/5, II/3). Also Sir Andrew is "a fool and a prodigal".(note how he is made a fool of by Maria I/3 and by Sir Toby III/2 and III/4). We find out that Sir Andrew has "the gift of a coward" (see III/4 and IV/1) and is "drunk nightly" with Sir Toby (see Malvolio's discourse in II/5).
The scene also introduces the theme of a lover trying unsuccessfully to develop his courtship. This comic scene is indicative of the theme which runs through the play. Note how Sir Andrew is encouraged to "accost Maria, how he is beguiled by her, how he is duped and finally abandoned.
ACT ONE SCENE FOUR D1
In man’s attire dressed as a man Humour fickleness Call in question query Continuance permanence Love liking for Inconstant fickle On your attendance I am ready Stand you a while aloof leave us alone for a while Know'st know Unclasp'd revealed Address thy gait get over to Audience an interview Abandon'd given up to Clamorous uproarious Leap all civil bounds forget normal politeness Unprofited return come aback with nothing Discourse a lecture Faith true intentions Become....... woes you are the best person to present my case Nuncio messenger Grave aspect looking more mature and serious Belie misrepresent Diana Roman Goddess known for her beauty Small pipe shrill voice As the maiden's organ like a girl's voice Semblative seeming like Constellation destiny Apt well fitted Four and five attend him four or five of you go with him Live as freely enjoy the master's property as if it were your own Barfull strife an unpleasant task Myself would be his wife I want to marry him myself
ACT ONE SCENE FOUR D2
Viola, now dressed as a man, is working for Orsino. She is using the name Cesario. Orsino is to use her as a messenger to Olivia. Orsino tells Viola to go and press his case with Olivia and be persistant, even to the point of rudeness. Orsino says that Viola is perfect for the part as he (she) is so young and looks like a woman (little knowing the truth). When she is about to set on her way, Viola confesses (to the audience and not to anybody else) that she has fallen in love with Orsino.
ACT ONE SCENE FOUR D3
It seems that Orsino is already in love with Viola although he does not propose to her or even realise that she is a woman until V/1. Orsino praise her female beauty as in ‘Diana’s lip’ ‘smooth and rubios’. His references to his love for Olivia in ‘passion’ and ‘dear faith’ are interspersed with imagery of sadness as in ‘woes’ and ‘abandoned to sorrow’. It is clear that Orsino is in love but is pursuing the wrong woman.
Note the imagery of the open book in ‘unclasped to thee the book even of my secret soul’. (In Tudor England, books could be locked). It would seem that Viola has fallen for Orsino because she can ‘read’ him.
ACT ONE SCENE FIVE E1
Hang thee kill you (an exageration)
Fear no colours fear no enemy
Make that good explain that
Lenten answer a weak reply (Lent is a time of fasting)
In the wars….your foolery you might well mention war because you are now at war with the mistress
God give….talents Let God give more wisdom to those who already have it . Fools can look after themselves with cunning.
Turned away fired and put out of the house.
Let summer bear it out it won't be so bad on the streets in summer.
Gaskins trousers (the two points are belt and braces).
Piece of Eve's flesh a woman (Eve was the first woman[Genesis]).
Peace be quiet
You were best you had better
Wit, and't be thy will [Wit here is personified] Oh Wit, would you please
Put me into good fooling let me do well in my comic routine
Quinapalus a philosopher invented by Feste
Go to go away
I'll no more of you I don't want you around any more
Botcher a clothing mender
Syllogism philosophical proof
As there is flower Feste rambles nonsense
Cucculus non fecit monacham Latin the habit does not make the monk. I.e. just because someone is dressed in a certain way does not mean that he is that person.
Motley patchwork clothing worn by jesters
I wear not motley in my brain I am not a fool in my head.
Dexteriously very well indeed
Catechise cross examine
Good my mouse of virtue a Tudor expresssion: dear sweet lady
For want of other idleness as I have nothing else to do
Why mourn'st thou? What are you grieving for?
Shall do…….shake him he will keep getting better until he dies
Infirmity loss of mental capacity
I marvel I am surprised
Minister occasion to him set up his jokes for him
Zanies fool's stooges
Sick of ill with
Bird bolts shot for shooting birds
Canon-bullets canon balls
No slander in an allowed fool a jester has special permission to be disrespectful
Mercury a Roman god known for lying
Endure thee with leasing give you a long life
Fair good looking
Who of my people? Which one of my servants?
Hold him in delay is dealing with him
Fetch him off get him away
Madman madman's talk
Fie on him damm him
Jove Roman god, oldest and wisest of the gods
Pia mater membrane of the brain
A plague o' curse
How now helllo
How have…..lethargy? Why are you drunk so early in the day?
There's one there is a person
Marry exclamation "Virgin Mary"
What is he? What sort of person?
Let…….all one I don't care if he's the Devil
One draught above heat one drink too many
Mads makes him mad
Crowner coroner. Official who investigates unusual deaths
Sit o' make a judgement on
Yond that (short for yonder)
Sheriff's post a wooden stake outside the sheriff's office where notices were posted
Personage and years type and age
Squash/peascod unripe peapod/ripe peapod
Codling unripe apple
In standing water in between
Well favoured good looking
Your will? What do you want?
Penned well written
Con learn by heart
Sinister usage mockery
I am not that I play I am not the same person as the character I am playing
From my commission I am digressing from my mission
Have reason are sane
Time of moon phase of the moon. The lunar cycle was associated with madness
Hoist sail depart. As a sailing ship
Swabber seaman (continuing the nautical analogy)
To hull to stay (again nautical)
Giant sarcastic: Maria is a short person (see Act III scene 2 where Sir Toby calls her 'the youngest wren of nine")
Tell me your mind tell me what you think
Olive olive-branch (a symbol of peace)
Entertainment reception here
Divinity a religious discourse
Give us the place alone (to the servants) go away and leave us alone.
Comfortable doctrine comforting text
In the first firstly
Out of your text departing from your speech
I was this present I was just now
Well done good looking
If God did all if God made it (i.e. if it is not done with cosmetics)
In grain ingrained (i.e. natural)
If you will………to copy die before you have a daughter to inherit your beauty
Labelled to my will added to my will as a codicil
To proud…..the devil Lucifer( the devil) fell from heaven because of his pride
Recompens'd receive its due
Thunder bellow out
Of great estate very rich
In voices well divulg'd well spoken of
In dimensions…..nature well built
In my master's flame with the same intensity as my master
What would you? What would you do?
Willow cabin a workman's hut. The willow is a symbol of sorrow
Parentage background: social class
Above my fortunes yet my estate is well although I have no money, I am of good class
Spend this for me she gives him a tip
Fee'd post delivery boy who is grateful for tips
Love make….love I hope that the man you fall in love with is as heartless to you as you are to my master
Fair cruelty beautiful yet cruel woman
Five fold blaze show off in five ways
Soft! soft! Wait a minute
Even so…..plague can you catch the plague as quickly as you fall in love?
Methinks I believe
Methinks…..mine eyes this young man's charm has overpowered me
County the count
Hie thee get on with it
I do…..what I don't know what I'm doing
Mine eye…..mind my eye has deceived my brain
Ourselves we do not owe none of us have control over our emotions
ACT ONE SCENE FIVE E2
Feste, the jester, is Olivia's servant. He is scolded by Maria for being away without permission and told that Olivia is angry with him and may well fire him and put him out of the house. Feste hopes that he can amuse Olivia and get back in her favour. Olivia enters with her steward Malvolio. Feste performs a comic routine which amuses Olivia but Malvolio is unimpressed. Malvolio makes some nasty comments about Feste. Olivia is told that there is a young man from Orsino's court who wishes to speak to her and that he was met at the gate by Sir Toby. Sir Toby comes in drunk and tells Olivia that she has a visitor. He is so drunk that he can't remember who it is. Olivia sends Malvolio to say that the visitor is a very young man and very persistant in wanting to speak to Olivia.
Olivia says she will see the visitor but first puts a veil over her face. Viola enters, dressed as a man. Viola tries to deliver a speech which she has written and practiced but Olivia and Maria keep interupting and teasing her so that she cannot finish. Viola asks Olivia to unveil herself and then forgets her speech and gives genuine praise to Olivia's beauty. Viola speaks of Orsino's love but Olivia says she is not interested. Olivia asks Viola to leave and tells her she may be asked to come again. After Viola has gone, Olivia confesses to the audience (but nobody else) that she has fallen in love with Viola. She sends Malvolio to follow Viola and return a ring which she says that viola thrust upon her.
N.B. Feste is usually referred to as 'the clown' or 'the fool' or is addressed by some other name. His actual name is Feste but this is mentioned only once in the text (Act II scene 4). For the sake of consistency we will call him 'Feste' throughout the Critique.
ACT ONE SCENE FIVE E3
First part of the scene (up to line 140)
This section deals with the theme of foolishness. The main character is Feste who interacts with each of the other characters to demonstrate their foolishness. Although Feste himself is 'an allowed fool' he shows himself to be shrewder than the others. This can be seen in the quotes "I wear not motley in my brain" i.e. I am not a fool in my mind, only in my exterior. Also "better a witty fool than a follish wit". I.e. better to be a good clown than a foolish serious person.
Feste proves that Olivia is a fool for weeping for her late brother who assuredly is in heaven. (Note in Act I scene 1, she promised to keep away from men for seven years and 'water once a day her chamber round with eye-offending brine')
Feste shows Malvolio's foolishness in lacking humour. He is 'sick of self love' in not laughing at 'an allowed fool'. His 'foolish wit' is shown in his caustic comment 'infirmity that decays the wise doth ever make him the greater fool'. Note that when in Act V scene 1, Feste confesses to have conspired against Malvolio, he gives as his reason the fact that Malvolio called him a 'barren rascel'
Finally the extremity in foolishness is demonstrated by the entrance of the pathetic drunkard, Sir Toby, who is described by Feste as a madman. Notice how the theme of madness reappears later in the play. Sebastian describes the people around him as mad (Act IV scene 1) and also he thinks that Olivia may be mad. Sebastian himself is called a madman when he attacks Sir Andrew. Later in Act I scene 5, Olivia accuses Viola of being mad. Most importantly of all, Malvolio is pronounced mad by all, even those who know him to be sane.
Second part of the scene(from line141)
The second part of the scene begins with confusion as to who is the lady to be addressed. (notice how important this is when Orsino's emotions of the previous scene are considered.) The theme of confusion and disguise emphasise Viola's disguise as a man: 'I swear that I am not that I play'. There is also a theme of rudeness in 'saucy at my gate' and learned from my entertainment'. The theme changes abruptly when Olivia removes her veil and reveals her face as 'beauty truly blent'. From now on the scene continues in blank verse [appendix A] and the theme becomes more agreeable. Note the imagery of cleanliness in 'noble', 'virtuous', 'stainless' and of fire in 'thunder love', 'sighs of fire', 'my master's flame'. The scene reaches a climax when Olivia resigns to her fate in the last four lines of the scene which are poignantly written in rhyming verse.
ACT TWO SCENE ONE F1
Stars shine darkly over me my horoscope predicts bad fortune
Malignancy of my fate my bad fortune
Sooth exclamation [literally 'by God's truth']
Determinate voyage travel plans
Extravagancy waste of time
But I……express myself you haven't asked me but I'll tell you anyway
Which I called Rodrigo I pretended to be called Rodrigo
Messaline a city invented by Shakespeare
He left behind him he died leaving
If the heavens had been pleased …ended If only God had let us die together
Before…drowned my sister drowned before you rescued me
Alas the day Oh what a fateful day
Was yet…..call fair many people said she was very beautiful. I wouldn't go that far but she was fairly good looking and was quite clever.
Again with more with more salt water i.e. tears
Bad entertainment my poor company
Near the manners of my mother like a woman, about to weep
ACT TWO SCENE ONE F2
Antonio is talking to Sebastian. From the conversation we find out that Antonio, a sailor, has rescued Sebastian from a shipwreck. Sebastian is Viola's twin brother. They look very much alike but Sebastian thinks that Viola was drowned in the shipwreck. Sebastian is on his way to see Orsino. Antonio says that although he has many enemies at Orsino's court, he will go with Sebastian because he likes him so much.
ACT TWO SCENE ONE F3
There is 'dramatic irony' [Appendix] in that Sebastian believes that Viola is dead while the audience know differently. Sebastian's belief that Viola is truly dead is communicated in the sombre imagery in 'stars shine darkly', 'malignant fate' and 'bear my evils'. Notice also the imagery of weeping in 'salt water' and 'mine eyes will tell tales of me'.
ACT TWO SCENE TWO G1
At several doors from different sides of the stage
Ev'n now just now
On a moderate pace walking slowly
If it be worth stooping for Malvolio throws the ring on the ground
My outside have not charmed her my disguise has not made her fall in love with me
Made good view of me kept staring at me
In starts distractedly as if she were not paying attention
Disguise Viola personifies disguise and speaks to him
Pregnant enemy the devil
Proper false good looking but lying men
Waxen hearts pliable emotions
To set their forms impress themselves
Our frailty women's weakness
Fadge turn out
As I am a man in my man's disguise
My state is desperate for my master's love I am striving in my master's cause
What thriftless…breathe poor Olivia doesn't stand a chance
Oh Time Time is personified
ACT TWO SCENE TWO G2
Malvolio catches up with Viola. He rudely tells her to take the ring. As Viola refuses to take it, he throws it to the ground and leaves. Viola thinks about the situation and then realises that Olivia has fallen in love with her.
ACT TWO SCENE TWO G3
The ring is, of course, symbolic of marriage. The exchange between Viola and Malvolio encapsulates the theme of courtship with the ring being offered, refused, repeatedly offered and cast aside. 'peevishly threw it at her' is representative of both Orsino's and Malvolio's pursuit of Olivia.
Notice that when Viola speaks alone, the text changes from prose to blank verse while certain poignant themes of the play are discussed. Note in particular how 'Disguise' is personified and called 'a wickedness' and how the effects of disguise are summed up in 'were better love a dream'. Notice how women's frailty is blamed for the mishaps of the play., particularly in the alliteration of 'women's waxen hearts'. There is a certain irony here as it is the male characters Orsino, Sir Andrew and particularly Malvolio who are the ones deceived.
ACT TWO SCENE THREE H1
Approach come in
Abed in bed
Dilucio surgere Latin 'It is healthy to get up early'
By my troth truly
Four elements earth, air, fire and water. In Greek philosophy, everything in life.
My hearts my friends
Picture of 'we three' an inn sign showing two asses. The third is the viewer. [a Tudor joke]
Forty shillings £2 Sterling--in today's terms, about $400
Leg ability to dance
Gracious fooling very funny
Pigrometes one of Feste's invented persons
Quebus another invented person
Sixpence a coin. In today's terms about $5
Leman girlfriend (i.e. to spend on your girlfriend)
Hads't it? Did you get it?
I…..gratility I did pocket your gratuity (Feste is drunk and slurs)
Malvolio's nose…..hours meaningless ramble
Testril sixpence (see above)
Good life a drinking song
To hear……contagion if we listened with our noses, we would call it sweet smelling
Three souls out of one weaver weavers were reputed to sing at their work. Therefore to sing as loud as three weavers.
Dog at good at
By'r lady mild oath. By the Virgin Mary
Some dogs will catch well some dogs sing as well as you (a joke).
Hold thy peace be quiet
My lady…….ramsey rambling nonsense
Consanguineous blood relation
Beshrew me a mild oath
Sneck up go hang yourself
Be round be candid
Harbours lets him stay at her house
Nothing allied cannot put up with
Art thou more than a steward? You are only a servant
Cakes and ale delicacies served on holy days (disliked by Puritans)
Ginger cakes were covered in ginger. If there were no cakes , the ginger on its own would burn your mouth (joke).
Rub your chain with crumbs go and claen your chain (stewards wore a chain as a sign of office)
Means for uncivil rule Malvolio tells Maria that if he serves any more drink, he will report her.
Much out of quiet disturbed
Nayword byword (i.e. a byword for a fool)
Common recreation laughing stock
Posses us let us into the secret
Time pleaser time server
Cons state without book learns by heart wise sayings
Utters it by great swarths uses these sayings profusely
The best….love him and he thinks that people think him clever
And on that….to work and I will work my revenge around this fault
Feelingly personated he will think that it is him that is written about
Penthesilia Queen of the Amosons, a legenderary tribe of fierce women
A foul way out wasted a lot of money
Cut term of abuse(see Act II scene 5). Cunt
Burn some sack drink some sherry
ACT TWO SCENE THREE H2
Sir Toby, Sir Andrew and Feste have come home late. They are all drunk and make a lot of noise, shouting and singing. Maria comes in and tells them to be quiet and that Olivia has told Malvolio to come and speak to them. Malvolio enters and rudely rebukes them for their noise and drunkenness. Sir Toby is angry at being spoken to in this way by a steward. Sir Andrew, Feste and Maria are also annoyed by Malvolio's rudeness to them. Maria forms a plot to get revenge. She will leave a letter for Malvolio, supposedly from Olivia saying that Olivia takes Malvolio for a great man and is in love with him. They all agree to this plot.
ACT ONE SCENE THREE H3
The theme of the scene is chaos and disorder. It begins with Sir Toby's joke that to stay up late is 'to be up betimes', a masterpiece of contradiction. The 'four elements' that control an ordered life are replaced by 'eating and drinking'. Feste's malapropisms and mispronunciations add to the confusion which culminates in his ridiculous, yet undeniable assertion that 'I shall never begin if I hold my peace'. In the middle of this chaos is a love song which highlights the play's central theme of confusion within courtship.
The chaos leads up to Malvolio's entrance where the status of masters and servants is reversed. Malvolio's acting like a master prompts Sir Toby to ask 'are you more than a steward?' Malvolio's arrogance is characterised by saying "are you mad?", which is particularly poignant later, when the roles are righted, Sir Toby imprisons Malvolio as a madman. Malvolio's acting above his status is caused by his yearning to be 'Count Malvolio' as we see later when Malvolio berates Sir Toby in his daydream.(Act II scene 5).
The plot to gain revenge and put the roles back in order depends on the recurring theme of deceit and disguise. Maria's 'hand' is to be disguised as Olivia's while Malvolio is to see himself 'feelingly personated'.
ACT TWO SCENE FOUR I1
Recollected terms laboriously constructed modern music
In all motions else save in everything except
My life upon't I would bet my life
Some favour some face
Of your complexion looks like you
What years? How old?
An elder than herselfa man older than herself
Wears she to him adapts herself to his ways
Sways she level a young wife retains her beauty longer
Our fancies…than women men are more fickle in their choice of partners than women
Hold the bent stand the strain
Spinsters and knitters women who spin wool
Silly sooth Venerable and simple
Old age Golden Age
Prithee please (I pray thee)
Cypress a coffin of cypress wood
Fie away go away
No one so true no one was such a true lover as I
Melancholy god Saturn
Doublet garment worn in Tudor times. Like trousers that finish above the knee. Made of silk.
Changeable taffeta silk woven with different colours of warp and weft making it change colour in the light.
Opal gemstone which changes colour in the light
Such constancy subject to moodswings like you
Put to sea become seafarers (i.e. their moodswings match the sea's changeability)
Sovereign cruelty queen of cruelty
More noble than the world is better than anywhere in the world
Prizes not…lands is not interested in the land she owns
The parts upon her the wealth she possesses
Miracle and queen of gems her good looks
There is no woman's sides a woman cannot love as strongly as a man
Lack retention do not hold too much
No motion….palate not felt in the heart (the liver was the throne of love see Act I scene 1)
That suffers the taste gets jaded
Can digest as much can swallow as much as the see can
Make no compare do not compare
Too well very well
My father……..man my sister loved a man
As it might…woman just like me, if I were a woman
She never told her love never told the man she loved him
But let concealment but allowed the hiding of her love
Green and yellow melancholy sicknes that makes the skin look a bad colour
Patience on a monument like a statue of the virtue 'Patience'
Smiling at grief trying to look cheerful
Our shows our outward appearance
For still we prove we say a lot but do nothing
I am all the daughters I am the only child
That's the throne that's the way to do it
ACT TWO SCENE FOUR I2
[Remember: Orsino thinks Viola is a man]
Orsino is speaking to Viola about the power of love. He asks Viola if she has ever been in love. Viola says that she once loved a woman who was the same age as Orsino and looked quite like him. Feste is called in to sing a mournful song. Before Feste leaves, he comments that Orsino has a temperamental character. Orsino tells Viola that a man's love is fare greater than a woman's can be and that his love for Olivia is particularly strong. Viola tells Orsino of a sister who had so strong a love for a man that she pined almost to death. Orsino sends Viola to Olivia again.
ACT TWO SCENE FOUR I3
Despite the fact that Orsino believes Viola to be a man, the couple are here portrayed as lovers. The interaction between the two is shown by their lines joining together in the verse form as for example:--
Orsino. 'Hath it not, boy?
Viola A little by your favour'
Orsino. 'Than women's are
Viola I think it well, my lord'
Having two characters share a line of iambic pentameter is a particular Shakesperian teqnique to show the togetherness of a couple.
We know that the two come together in Act IV but for now, the progress of their love is blocked. This is shown by the intermingling of the imagery of death and disease with that of jewellery and precious things. Death imagery is shown in 'worm I' th' bud', 'green and yellow melancholy' but particularly in Feste's song with 'shroud', 'coffin' etc. For imagery of valued items see 'opel', 'jewel', 'damask' and 'fair flower'. Notice how the two forms cojoin in the oxymorans [Apendix] 'sweet pangs' and 'smiling at grief'.
The disaray is caused by the contrasting atitudes to love. Orsino is impatient, eager to make progress and considers his love insatiable and insurmountable as in 'mine is all as hungry as the sea'. Note how this attitude is highlighted in two rhyming couplets:--
'Our shows are more than will: for still we prove
Much in our vows, but little in our love'
'To her in haste; give her this jewel; say
My love can give no place, bid no delay'
Viola's attitude is over-cautious as shown in 'sat like patience on a monument' and 'never told her love'.
The two contrasting attitudes and the consequent disarray make a didactic [Appendix] point that courtship must be pursued neither over zealously nor over cautiously. Remember that in Elizabethan England, arranged marriages were on the decline and there was a tendency for young people to be allowed to choose their own partners.
ACT TWO SCENE FIVE J1
Come thy ways come along
Scruple very small portion
Sheep biter miserable person
Bear-baiting Cruel sport (see also Act I scene 3)
We'll have the bear again we'll make him the bear
Metal of India gold (as the sun rising in the East)
Practicing behaviour practicing mannerisms
Contemplative idiot bewildered fool
Trout tickling trout can be caught by a poacher tickling their underside
Overweaning above himself
'Slight an oath (God's light)
Yeoman a commoner
Yeoman of the wardrobe man who looks after a lady's clothes
Jezabel a haughty woman (Old Testament: Book of Kings)
Stone bow catapult
Humour of state taste of business
Demure travel of regard inspection of those present
scab insulting term
Gin bird trap
Spirit…to him let his erratic behaviour lead him to read it aloud
C.U.T. spells out cut (nowadays 'cunt')
P pee (short for piss)
Contempt of question without doubt
By your leave, wax Malvolio speaks to the wax seal and then breaks it
Lucrece a sealing ring bearing the insignia of the sender of the letter
Brock a badger: insulting term
Gore bring out blood
Staniel kestel (insulting)
O shall end 'O' being a noose for Malvolio to be hanged
Detractions slanders and libels
Revolve think deeply
Thy fates open their hands your lucky stars make you a good offer
Tang speak of
Trick of singularity your own style of dress
Champaign clear open countryside
Point…device to the letter
The very man the one described in the letter
Tay-trip game played with dice
Aqua vita strong liquor
Tartar Tartary: the Greek hell
ACT TWO SCENE FIVE J2
Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, Maria and Fabian are about to play a trick on Malvolio. Maria drops a letter in Malvolio's path while the men hide behind a box tree to watch the fun. Malvolio is talking to himself. He imagines himself as being married to Olivia and taking on the responsibilities of a count. In his daydream, he imagines rebuking Sir Toby for his drunkenness and calling Sir Andrew a fool. The men watching from behind the tree are furious. Malvolio finds the letter. He recognises the handwriting as Olivia's although in fact Maria has written it. He reads out the letter. It says that Olivia loves him and that if he feels the same about her, he is to give her a sign by dressing in yellow stockings, cross gartered. He is also to smile a lot, to be dismissive to Sir Toby and stand aloof from other servants. He leaves vowing to follow the instructions in the letter. The men laugh uproariously at Malvolio's foolishness. Maria returns and explains that Olivia detests the fashion of cross gartering and hates the colour yellow. The men cannot wait to see what will happen.
ACT TWO SCENE FIVE J3
We see Malvolio being set up for his humiliation in act III scene 4. We have already seen his obnoxious behaviour in Act II scene 3, where he was 'more than a steward'. Now he goes further. It is important that he is allowed to construct his own ridiculous image, so that the audience can see what a loathesome character he is. Malvolio appears (so he thinks) solo strutting around ('practicing behaviour to his own shadow'). This gives the audience empathy with Sir Toby and his cronies who are observers of the scene. Malvolio is further humbled by the comic comments of the other characters and their ribald language i.e. 'Cut (cunt) and P (piss)' note the two key phrases in this scene. Sir Toby's 'overweaning rogue' pinpoints Malvolio's misdeeds and 'I know my place as I would they know theirs' which shows that he is ignorant of his fault.
ACT THREE SCENE ONE K1
Save thee Hello (short for God save you)
Tabor small drum
Live by make you living by (Feste deliberately misinterprets)
Chev'ril soft goatskin
Car'st for cares for (i.e. worries about)
Pass upon make a fool of
Aside speaks directly to the audience
Lord Pandarus…Troilus Pandarus was a go-between for the lovers Troilus and Cressida.
Haggard wild hawk
Dieu vous garde, monsieur God save you, sir [French].
Et vous aussi: votre serviteur and you too, I am your servant.
Taste try out
Pregnant sympathetic/ receptive
Twas never merry world the world has become a bad place
His thoughts.. I wish he thought of nothing rather than think of me
Solicit ask for
Music from the spheres heavenly music
Hard construction stern judgement
None of yours not your property
At the stake at stake
A degree to a kind of
Grize tiny part
The poor pitiful ones
When wit and youth…harvest when you come to maturity
You'll nothing are you sure you won't say something?
Oh what…noon love cannot hide itself
Do not extort don't ask the reason why
ACT THREE SCENE ONE K2
Viola goes once again to Olivia's house. Outside the house, shee meets Feste who amuses her with his jokes. Sir Toby and Sir Andrew invite Viola into the house. Viola meets with Olivia in the garden and speaks alone with her. Olivia tells Viola that she is in love with her. Viola says that she cannot return Olivia's love and leaves her. Olivia begs her to come again.
ACT THREE SCENE ONE K3
ACT THREE SCENE TWO L1
Venom poison (jokingly)
Fire new newly made
Double gilt twice golden (i.e. golden opportunity)
Sailed into the north gone far away
Licence of ink when writing, you can think about what you are saying more freely than when you are speaking.
Thous't to address him as thou (an insult when addressed to a person you do not know very well)
Bed of Ware a famous large bedstead
Goose pen quill pen--a pun on goose (cowardly)
Two thousand strong has cost him two thousand
Wainropes ropes used to pull a cart
Wren small bird (a reference to Maria's stature)
Renagado traitor to his religion
Pedant poor school master
New map of the Indies Tudor map of the East Indies, covered with lines like wrinkles
Forbear stop myself
ACT THREE SCENE TWO L2
Sir Andrew wants to go home because Olivia is taking no notice of him. Sir Toby plans to play a trick on him. Sir Toby persuades Sir Andrew that Olivia is flirting with Viola (Cesario) in order to make him jealous. Sir Toby tells Sir Andrew to write a letter to Viola challenging her (him) to a duel. Maria comes and tells sir Toby that Malvolio is looking like a fool smiling furiously and dressed in yellow stockings. They rush off to see what will happen.
ACT THREE SCENE TWO L3
ACT THREE SCENE THREE M1
By my will willingly
Stay behind remain while you moved on
Not all love to see you not only because I wanted to see you
Uncurrent pay useless reward
Were my worth if I were richer, I could treat you better
Relics tourist sites
Renown this city make the city famous
I did some service I did a deed that became so noted
Ta'en taken: captured
Scarce be answered I would have no defence
Slew the outside world
Quality and time of quarrel the nature of the dispute
Answer'd in repaying compensation given
For traffic's sake for the sake of good trading relations
Elephant name of an inn
Bespeak our diet order our dinner
There shalt you will find me there (at the Elephant)
Why I your purse? Why am I to carry your money?
Your eyes shall light you will see
Store cash you have
Idle markets spontaneous purchase
ACT THREE SCENE THREE M2
Antonio catches up with Sebastian outside the gates of a city. He explains that he is so fond of Sebastian that he wants to travel along with him. Sebastian agrees to this but Antonio explains that he cannot go into the city as he might be recognised and captured by Orsino's troops. He tells Sebastian to look around the city alone while he will go to an Inn, the Elephant, and order rooms and a meal. He gives Sebastian his money in case he needs to by a souvenir and they arrange to meet later at the Elephant.
ACT THREE SCENE THREE M3
In this scene we find the theme of loyalty and devotion. Antonio is drawn to follow Sebastian but is not able to provide a compelling reason. Note the metalic imagery:-- 'more sharp than filed steel, did spur' as opposed to the human body organs so evident in previous scenes. This supports the language of inhospitability as in 'rough', inhospitable' and 'danger'. In addition there is the story of the sea battle in which Antonio was in Orsino's words (Act V scene 1) a notable pirate, salt water thief'.
ACT THREE SCENE FOUR N1
Feast him shall I offer him a meal?
What bestow of him? what shall I give him?
Youth is bought young people can be bribed
Sure possessed without doubt mad
Tainted in his wits his brain has gone awry
Sad and merry madness to be mad with grief is the same as to be mad and happy
Obstruction in the blood pins and needles
Shall be executed will be obeyed
Roman hand Italic writing
Nightingales answer daws only nightingales speak to jackdaws (daws) i.e. (to Maria) don't speak to me, I'm of a higher class.
Midsummer Madness madness at its height
I could hardly It was difficult to
Miscarry die or become permanently ill
Scruple tiny part
Drawn in little painted on a miniature portrait
Legion the devil and all his followers
Defy the devil renounce the devil
Do you know You don't know what you are talking about
His water a sample of urine
Wise woman woman who can undo a spell
Bawcock my good man
Chuck/ biddy terms of endearment
For gravity a wise judgement
Cherry pit a children's game i.e. to be friends
Collier coalman. The devil is traditionally black as coal.
Minx cheeky girl
Element social class
You shall….hereafter you will find out in due course
Take air and taint become public knowledge and spoil
Mad indeed truly mad
To the bar to the open court
More matter for a May morning more material for sport
On the windy side on the right side (seafaring metaphor)
By and by soon
Bum-baily sheriff's man (delivering writs by stealth)
Draw draw the sword
Comes to pass off often happens
Twanged off delivered
Clodpole country fool. Lirerally earth-head
Cockatrice legendary serpents who killed with looks
Potent strong, powerful
Goes on my master's griefs my master feels the same way
Jewel bejewelled miniature portrait
What…give I'll give you anything apart from my chastity
Nothing but this I don't want anything except
That defence whatever weapon you have, get it at once
Attends thee is waiting for you
Dismount thy tuck draw your sword
Betake you to your guard look to your defence
Unhatched rapier unused sword
Carpet consideration non military matter
Hob nob like it or not
Undertake make a deal
Forswear to wear iron give up wearing a sword. Not be a real man
Do me this courteous office help me out
As to know of find out
Something of my negligence something I have forgotten to do
Mortal arbitrement fight to the death
Wonderful promise great reputation
Bound obliged/ grateful
Go with sir priest my friends are quiet people (like priests)
Mettle strength of character
Pass quick round of sword play
Stuck in strike
Pox on't curse it
Make the motion go to him
Perdition of souls loss of life
Is as horribly conceited has a fearful notion
For oath's sake because he has sworn to
Better bethought him had second thoughts
Draw for the supportance Draw for form's sake
By the duello by the rules of combat
Undertaker one who takes up the cause of others
Officers Count Orsino's men (some what like the police)
At the suit in the name of
Be of comfort cheer up
Lean and lower ability the little money I have
Division of my present half the cash I have with me
Deserts to you what I deserve from you
Lack persuasion leave you unmoved
Done good feature shame discredited your look of innocence
Beauteous evil good looking but evil people
O'er flourished painted over i.e. the devil gives them good looks.
So do not I I'm tempted to believe it myself
Imagination Imagination is personified [Appendix]
Whisper…saws we will talk more sense than these people
Living in my glass he is the mirror image of me
Still in this fashion dressed like this
More a coward than a hare more cowardly than a hare
Religious in it as if he practised regularly
ACT THREE SCENE FOUR N2
Olivia is expecting a visit from Viola (Cesario). She plans to impress him with a formal dignified meeting. She sends for Malvolio to be with her as he has a serious nature. Malvolio enters smiling and dressed absurdly in yellow stockings. He drops hints that he has received the letter that he thinks Olivia has written. After a comic scene of banter and misunderstandings, Olivia decides that Malvolio is mad and asks for Sir Toby to look after him until he comes to his senses. She goes off to meet Viola.
Sir Toby and Maria pretend that they think Malvolio is mad and take him away to lock him in a dark room. Sir Andrew enters. He has written a silly letter to viola, threatening her (him) and provoking a duel. Sir Toby tells Sir Andrew that he will deliver the letter for him but plans to deliver the message verbally and frighten Viola by saying that Sir Andrew is a fearsome fighter. Viola takes her leave of Olivia who begs her to come again the next day. As viola leaves, Sir Toby confronts her saying that the fearsome Sir Andrew is angry and wants to fight a duel with her. Viola is frightened. Toby leaves her with Fabian and goes to Sir Andrew. He tells Sir Andrew that Viola is a great fighter and Sir Andrew is sure to lose the duel. Sir Andrew is frightened and begs Sir Toby to ask Viola for mercy and he will give his horse as a present. Sir Toby says he will intercede and plans to keep the horse for himself. Sir Toby tells each contestant that the other wants a quick duel for honour's sake but promises not to kill. The two trembling contestants draw their swords and face each other. Antonio enters and sees viola who he thinks is her twin brother Sebastian. He draws his sword and swears to defend Viola/ Cesario /Sebastian. Sir Toby draws his sword and offers to fight but the officers enter and arrest Antonio.
As Antonio is under arrest, he asks viola for his money back. Viola does not know what he is talking about. Antonio curses viola who he calls Sebastian as an ungrateful wretch and is led away by the officers. Viola, being addressed as Sebastian, realises that her brother may be alive. Sir Toby finds himself alone with Sir Andrew and tells him that Viola is an ungrateful person and therefor must be a coward. He tells Sir Andrew to go and punch Viola and then follows him to see what will happen.
ACT THREE SCENE FOUR N3
We see three characters in turn, Malvolio, Sir Andrew and Viola, brought down by the mischievous Sir Toby. Note the different imagery associated with each character. With Malvolio, it is hellish with 'devil', 'fiend', 'Legion' etc. (also see act IV scene 2 commentary P3).
When Sir Andrew appears, the imagery is foolishness as in 'senseless', 'clodpole' etc.
In Viola's case, we hear of conflict in 'brawl', 'pangs of death', 'indignation' etc. Amidst all this imagery of iniquity, there is a brief scene between Viola and Olivia in which the constant theme of love being offered and rejected occurs once more. Note how this piece poignantly ends with the rhyming couplet concerning the devil.
The scene is completed by a fracas in which all the above evils are mentioned. The most poignant lines, concerning ingratitude, an intense theme of the play, goes to Viola:--
'I hate ingratitude more in a man
Than lying, vainness, babbling drunkenness
Or any taint of vice whose strong corruption
Inhabits our frail blood.'
ACT FOUR SCENE ONE O1
Go to go away
Held out persisted
Vent thy folly practice your jokes
Lubber big awkward person
Worse payment something worse than money (i.e. a punch)
Go another way to work find another way
Action of battery sue for assault
Let go thy hand (to Sir Toby) do you want to fight?
Extent against thy peace attack on you
Thou shalt not choose you have no choice
Relish taste (i.e. what I am experiencing)
Lethe legendary river of forgetfulness
ACT FOUR SCENE ONE O2
Feste meets Sebastian who he thinks is Viola/ Cesario. He tells Sebastian that Olivia wants to see him. Sebastian thinks that Feste is an idiot. He gives him some money and tells him to go away or he will hit him. Sir Andrew enters, sees Sebastian, who he thinks is Viola/ Cesario and punches him. Sebastian punches him back and proceeds to beat him up. Feste runs off to tell Olivia. Sir Toby draws his sword and threatens Sebastian who draws and faces sir Toby. Olivia enters, rebukes Sir Toby as a ruffian and tells him to clear off. She too thinks that Sebastian/ Cesario. She apologises for Sir toby's behaviour and invites Sebastian to come to her house with her. Sebastian willingly agrees.
ACT FOUR SCENE ONE O3
In this brief scene we see the theme of mistaken identity intermingled with violence which abruptly changes to recognition combined with love. Notice that when Feste mistakes Sebastian for Viola/ Cesario, he is threatened with a cuff. Sir Andrew, making the same mistake, comes to blows with Sebastian and Sir Toby, too draws swords with Sebastian.
The theme abruptly changes when Olivia enters with the lines 'Out of my sight' and 'Rudesby, be gone' thereby expelling disorder from the scene. The non-recognition continues but the two remaining characters are portrayed as lovers as shown by the rhyming couplets of the last eight lines and the shared final line.
ACT FOUR SCENE TWO P1
Sir Topas Tudor priests had the title 'sir' as did knights.
Dissemble lie hypocritically
Good housekeeper man who lives well
Bonos dies Good day (Spanish)
King Gondobuc another of Feste's characters
To him go to him
Knave confidence trickster
Never was man thus wronged never was there a man so badly done to
Fie shame on you
Barricados barricades (i.e. not transparent)
Clerestories row of windows high in the wall of a church
South north an obvious contradiction. Feste is rambling
Obstruction impediment to light
Errest makes a mistake
Egyptians in their fog the plague of darkness which befell the Egyptians in the Old Testement
Make the trial of it test it out
Pythagoras Greek philosopher
Concerning wildfowl doctrine of reincarnation
Allow thee of thy wits certify you sane
For all waters can perform all kinds of tricks
Go to him in thine own voice go to him as yourself
I would I wish
As ever…at my hand if you would like a reward
How fell you….wits? how did you come to lose your senses?
Propertied treat me like an object or commodity
Face me out of my wits drive me out of my mind
Advise you be careful
Endeavour thyself try to
Bibble babble senseless prattle
Maintain no words do not enter into conversation
Well-a-day if only
Requite pay back
ACT FOUR SCENE TWO P2
Maria and Feste go to taunt Malvolio who is locked away in a darkened room. Maria gives Feste a clergyman's gown for him to go to Malvolio disguised as the priest Sir Topaz. Feste speaks to Malvolio from outside the room, in a disguised voice, asking him questions to test whether he is truly mad. Although Malvolio pleads that he is sane and answers all the questions rationally, Feste declares him mad and leaves him in despair. Sir Toby now declares that he is tired of this amusement and tells Feste to go to Malvolio as himself and try to find a way to have him released. When Feste goes again, Malvolio begs him to bring pen, paper, ink and a candle so that he can write a letter to Olivia. He promises Feste a large reward. Feste says he will do it and return presently.
ACT FOUR SCENE TWO P3
ACT FOUR SCENE THREE Q1
There he was he was lodging there
Soul disputes….serve my heart and head are in agreement
Discourse thinking about it
Take and give back affairs conduct business
Chantry chapel or part of a church
Conceal it not tell anybody
Whiles you are willing…bind until you are ready for our marriage to be publicised
ACT FOUR SCENE THREE Q2
Sebastian is bemused by his kind treatment by Olivia. He realises that she is in love with him but he cannot think why. He is also perplexed as Antonio did not meet him as arranged at the Elephant. Olivia enters with a priest. She asks Sebastian to come with her to the chapel and marry him. Sebastian willingly agrees.
ACT FOUR SCENE THREE Q3
ACT FIVE SCENE ONE R1
As thou lovest me if you are a friend of mine
Grant me another request do something for me
Give a dog…dog again to give and take away again
Make it another give me another coin
Grace common sense
In you pocket out of sight
Primo, secundo, tertio first second and third [Latin]
The third pays for all proverb: third time lucky
Triplex triple time (music)
Bells of St Bennet church bells ringing in threes
At this throw on this occasion
Lullaby let it take a short nap
Vulcan Roman god: a blacksmith
Unprisable not worth capturing
Envy and tongue of loss his enemies (i.e. those least likely to speak well of him)
What's the matter? what is going on?
Candy Candia in Crete
Desperate of shame and state carelessly undisguised
Drew on my side drew his sword to defend me
Put strange speech on me spoke to me in a strange way
Base and ground on good grounds
Wrack broken wreck
Retention holding back
Pure for his love only on his account
Not meaning…..danger not wanting to share danger with me
Face….acquaintance pretend he did not know me
A twenty years removed thing as if it had been something that had happened twenty years ago
While one would wish the time taken to wish
Interring not a minute's vacancy not a moment
You did not keep promise with me what are you doing with Orsino, now that you are married to me?
Good my lord asking Orsino to be quiet while Cesario speaks
My master hushes me my master wants to speak so I must be quiet
Aught to the old tune the same old story
Fat and fulsome boring and hateful
Egyptian chief a fabled robber who killed his lover when facing death
Live you I will let you live
Minion cherished one
In his master's spite to the annoyance of his master
If I do feign If I am lying now may heaven strike me dead
Ay me detested Alas, I am hated
Sirrah form of address used to a servant
Take thy fortunes up acknowledge the truth
Be that be the person you are and then you are a match for anybody
I charge thee by thy reverence I put you on oath by your holy office
Though lately the thing that we meant to keep secret but now has to be told before the proper time
Mutual joinder joining together
Attested sworn to
Holy close of lips spoken vows
Sealed performed by me
Sowed a grizzle made your hair turn grey
Or will not or perhaps your skill will improve so much
That thine own trip that you will outreach yourself and be overthrown
Hold little faith keep at least a little faith
A surgeon a doctor
Your help help us
I would rather.. I would give forty pounds ($8,000) to be at home
Incardinate Sir Andrew's mistake. He means incarnate: in human form
Od's lifelings a curse (by god's life)
Bespake you fair was polite to you
Been in drink been drunk
Tickled the othergates done the opposite
Sot drunkard (talking to Sir Andrew)
His eyes… he's been drunk since the morning
Passed measures pavin one who goes dancing (i.e. an idler)
Brother of my blood my own brother
I must have I could not have done less safely
Throw a strange regard look strangely
Habit suit of clothes
A natural perspective like a mirror
How have the hours I have been miserable
Fears't thou that? Do you not know that?
More twin more alike
Do I stand thee? Is that me over there?
Deity of nature like a god to be in two places at once
Of charity please help me
What countryman? What country do you come from?
So suited to his watery tomb dressed like that to his death at sea
A spirit.. I am a ghost but have a body too
Were you If I were a woman and everything else the same
That record… that memory is vivid
Finished indeed died
If nothing lets the only thing stopping us being happy
Till each…. Until I look like Viola
All the occurences everything that has happened
You have been mistook have made a mistake
But nature nature has worked on your mistake
Betrothed engaged to be married
The glass seems true what seemed to be a mirror trick has proved true
I shall have share I will benefit from
Like to me as much as you love me
Over swear swear again
Orbed continent sun
Action court action
In durance kept in custody
Exacting frenzy a madness which took all other matters from my mind
Belzebub the devil
Delivers acts the part of
Vox imitating another's voice [Feste is reading the letter in a 'mad' voice]
Perpend stop speaking
Give ear listen
Semblance disguise/ unusual style of dress i.e. the yellow stockings)
Think me well a sister value me as a sister in law
One day shall crown get married on the same day
At my proper cost I will pay for it
Your hand your handwriting
Write from it write in another way
Taint the condition of spoil the moment
Wondered at marvelled at
Upon some….parts because he was stubborn and rude to us
How with a sporting malice the events that followed the marriage (i.e. being beaten by Sebastian) are sufficient punishment
I was one in this interlude I played a part in the trick
Whirlygig spinning top
Golden time convents the time is right
For so….man I have to call you Cesario while you are dressed as a man
Wife get married
Toss-pots drunkards (i.e. like other drunkards)
ACT FIVE SCENE ONE R2
Malvolio has given Feste a letter for Olivia. Fabian wants to see it but Feste will not let him. Orsino and Viola arrive. Feste performs a comic routine for Orsino. Orsino tells him to go and fetch Olivia. The officers bring Antonio before Orsino. Orsino recognises Antonio as an enemy sailor who did great damage to his navy in battle. Antonio admits the fact but pleads that as he was taking part in a just war, his action was not a crime. He recognises viola, who he thinks is Sebastian. He tells Orsino how he rescued Sebastian from the sea and was later treacherously abandoned by him. Orsino says that this is nonsense because Viola has been with him for the last three months. Olivia enters and tells Orsino vigorously that she wants nothing to do with him. Orsino realises that she has fallen in love with Viola/ Cesario and will get his revenge on Olivia by depriving her of her loved one. Viola readily agrees with this. Olivia is aghast that Viola (who she thinks is Sebastian) wants to go with Orsino. She brings in the priest who testifies that they were married two hours ago. Orsino is outraged at this treachery. Sir toby and Sir Andrew enter and say that Sebastian, (who they think is Viola/ Cesario) has beaten them up. Viola denies this. Olivia orders her servants to take Sir Toby and Sir Andrew to the doctor. Sebastian enters and apologises to Olivia for beating her uncle but says he was attacked first. Everybody is amazed when Sebastian and Viola are together as they look so much alike. Sebastian and Viola are reunited and Viola admits that she is a woman. Orsino is amazed and, now realising that Viola is a woman, wants to marry her. Viola agrees. Feste enters with Malvolio's letter and Fabian reads it out. Olivia is angry at the trick that has been played on Malvolio. She sends for him and explains the truth. Fabian announces that Sir Toby has run off with Maria and married her. Malvolio storms off in a rage swearing revenge. Orsino and Viola leave to get married. All the others follow them except Feste who remains to sing a final comic song.
ACT FIVE SCENE ONE R3
In the final scene, the denouement (Appendix), all the strands of the play are drawn together and all the themes and imagery of the play (madness, love, disguise and misconception etc etc.) are restated.
We see madness in 'my friends tell me I am an ass', 'much distract', 'he holds Belzebub at the stave's end', 'I do but read madness' and, of course, in Sir Toby's drunken behaviour.
There is love in 'now heaven walks on earth', 'the lamb that I do love' and in the rapport between Sebastian and Olivia and between Orsino and Viola.
Disguise and misapprehension are present in 'double dealer', 'masculine usurped atire', 'how I am beguiled' and 'disembling cub'.
Note particularly the oxymoran (Appendix) 'happy wreck' which sums up the play. The play starts with a wreck, continues with disorder and now culminates in a happy but confused conclusion with three marriages and gratification for all except Malvolio whose final exit line 'I'll be revenged on the whole pack of you' threatens that the stability and orderliness now achieved must be safely guarded, lest chaos starts again.
Look carefully at the final song which sums up the play. i.e.
When I was a tiny boy, a foolish thing was but a toy A naïve person believes he can get anything he wants
When I came to man's estate, against thieves men shut their gates As you get wiser you realise that you have to work for what you want and then look after it.
When I came alas to wive, by swaggering could I never thrive You cannot get a wife by arrogant behaviour.
With toss pots still had drunken heads drinking too much is no good.
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|Virginia Woolf||The Use of Symbolism|
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|Jane Austen||Pride and Prejudice and Emma|